ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 9 No 1 April edition 2013

                           ABSTRACT OF APRIL EDITION 2013
                                Volume 9*Number 1* APRIL 2013
                                             ISSN 1813-0534
1.Employee Quality Management Practices at Network Security Solutions(NSS MSC Sdn. Bhd.)
Ganakrishnan Gopalakrishnan, RMIT University Vietnam

Purpose – The aim of this research is to provide an overview of the quality management practices among the employees of NSS MSC Sendirian Berhad, an ISO 27001 certified company.
Approach – Self-administered questionnaires collected data and review of the company’s Information Security Policies.
Findings – A total of 40 employees participated in the survey. 8 employee quality management practices were identified: management commitment; teamwork; employee involvement;leadership; training; continuous improvement; reward and recognition; and quality assurance.
Research limitations – The main focus of this research is based on an ISO certified company and its employee quality management practices. Based on these 2 criteria, NSS MSC Sendirian Berhad was chosen. This paper provides an overview on the employee quality management practices at NSS MSC Sendirian Berhad, an information security management company. There were no specific literature available on similar industry and type of ISO certification (ISO/IEC27001:2005), with similar economic and market condition.
Value - This article provides an overview of the employees’ perspective on the quality management practices within NSS MSC Sendirian Berhad’s, to its management. The main recommendation is for the management to improvise on the leadership; training; continuous improvement; and, reward and recognition.
Keywords:Quality management practices, management commitment, teamwork, employee involvement, leadership, training, continuous improvement, reward and recognition,quality assurance.
Field: Quality Management
Discipline track number: MAN III: Quality Management
Ganakrishnan Gopalakrishnan, Centre of Commerce and Management, RMIT University,
Vietnam. E Mail:

2.A Comparative Case Study in Human Resource Management Practices on Bangladeshi and Foreign Electronics Companies
M. Khasro Miah Ph.D. and Raisul Islam, School of Business, North South University Dhaka, Bangladesh

This study aims at exploring the impact of HR practices on the transfer of human resource management (HRM) practices from the foreign MNCs in Bangladesh. Findings from the study demonstrate that foreign subsidiaries in Bangladesh, HRM practices is shared by the company managers that the parent company’s HRM practices are context generalizable and competent, and the original management template transferred from its European parent company can be sustained and reinforced. In addition, managers of European subsidiary consider that the parent firm’s HRM strategy and practices is framework specific and incompetent; the HRM template is subject to some or significant modification in the local set up and applied parent company HRM practices. In addition, study result shows that contingency factor of the cultural and institutional framework of the host country impacts the HRM practices transferred from the home country. MNCs, whose subsidiaries previously operated in a semiautonomous manner, now become more integrated. Finally, this study came across for demonstrative information and intimately examined the changes over time, consequent control and synchronization from the parent company, and development of HRM practices in the subsidiaries.
KeyWords:Human Resource Management Strategies, Contingency factor, Repressive style, Open hybrid,

3.Can The Relaxation Programs Really Improve Job Satisfaction and Lower Health Care Costs by Reducing Stress-Related Symptoms?
Hasnat Dewan and Leonard J. Hutt
Thompson Rivers University

Relaxation Programs are aimed at reducing stress-related physical, experiential and psychological symptoms – all of which affect employee productivity, job satisfaction, and health care
costs. Based on self-assessment of 2,645 individuals, this study shows that some physical, experiential and psychological symptoms are correlated. A four-week stress reduction program was found to
reduce many of those symptoms significantly. It also improved job satisfaction for some groups. This paper suggests that a preventive measure (relaxation program) with a cost of less than 600 Canadian
dollars can not only improve the quality of life for some, but can also increase their productivity and decrease health care costs. If the findings of this study can be confirmed with other studies that would
mean that stress reduction programs could effectively lower demand for certain types of health services, and therefore, reduce publicly or corporately borne medical expenses.

4.Reframing Sustainable Procurement for The 21st Century: Proposing Integrated Theory.
Adela J McMurray. RMIT University, Australia
Md. Mazharul Islam, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
John Fien, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

This study consolidates a comprehensive international literature review addressing sustainable procurement (SP) and thereby reframes this critical concept for the 21st century. In exploring the components of SP, the study engages in conceptual theory building and develops an innovative framework with the aim to uncover the factors that influence SP practices in applied research contexts such as workplaces. At this point in time, there is no integrated framework where the concept of SP
informs Sustainable Development. This study provides the identification of the seven factors may be utilized by academics, business managers and consultants in the pursuit of embedding SP in an
organization’s culture

5.The Politics of Agroforestry Management in An HIV/AIDS
Environment: The South Africa Experience
Frank W. Agbola
Economics Discipline, Newcastle Business School
Faculty of Business and Law
The University of Newcastle

This paper investigates the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on agroforestry management in South Africa. A critical review of policy reforms in the agroforestry sector is undertaken. The analysis was extended to examine HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the role of the government in curbing the epidemic. A survey was conducted to establish the extent to which HIV/AIDS epidemic is impacting on livelihoods in the rural sector in South Africa. We find that in order to curb the AIDS epidemic, the cofactors of the spread of the HIV/AIDS, such as poor health, poverty, migration and gender inequality needs to be addressed during the agroforestry management project cycle. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is found to be having a devastating impact on the human capital skill base, thus necessitating the need for the government to develop a multi-sectoral response to the AIDS epidemic

6.A General Microeconomic Foundation for Demand Deficiency
Xianming Meng
University of New England

Keynesian economics has lasted for decades and successfully provided policy suggestions for government to deal with economic recession, so it must include some elements of truth. Demand deficiency is one of its important concepts, but so far there is no satisfactory explanation to support this concept. Based on the finite nature of the utility of an individual, this paper reveals the microeconomic foundation for demand deficiency – the constraint in aggregate demand, and explores
its implications. This paper has also constructed an aggregate demand function including demand constraint and estimated it by employing US time series data and DOLS method.

7.Estimation of Import Demand Models for The Pharmaceutical Products in Australia
Belicka Samuel, Victoria University, Melbourne - Australia

This study estimates the Australian import demand models for pharmaceutical products from the Rest of the World (RoW) and 4 selected countries. The selected countries in this study are France,
Germany, United Kingdom and The United States of America. A total of 5 import demand models are estimated side-by-side, based on both monetary and Quantity (QTY) values, giving in total 10 import
demand models estimated. The import demand model estimated consists of 5 explanatory variables:Real Price (RP), Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) and three Dummy Variables, dummy
variables for the June (DQ2), September (DQ3) and December Quarters (DQ4). This study finds that all 10 import demand models are significant. Further findings are that the explanatory variable RP is
mostly significant and inelastic; the RGDP is mostly significant and elastic and that import demand in June, September and December quarters are in average lower than in the March quarter. In overall,
these findings suggests that changes in the relative prices of pharmaceutical products affect relatively smaller changes in the demand of pharmaceutical products, that the changes in real income in
Australia affect larger changes in the demand of pharmaceutical products and that the import demand of pharmaceutical products in June, September and December quarters is lower compared to the
March quarter in average.

8.What Does Green Marketing Represent to Children, Teenagers and
Adults? An Exploratory Study
Weng Marc Lim, Ding Hooi Ting, and Boon Kee See
School of Business, Monash University

The green market represents a lucrative avenue for business and market opportunities to organizations and entrepreneurs worldwide. To better understand the green market, it is imperative to gain an understanding on the characteristics of green consumers more specifically. Accordingly, this study seeks to offer insights on consumer perceptions on green marketing to further understand the characteristics of different market segments which are available to organizations and entrepreneurs
who are interested in conducting green businesses (i.e. providing green products and services). To provide a simplified understanding, the researchers divide the market into three distinctive segments:
children, teenagers and adults.The study is exploratory in nature and employs a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Findings from this study suggest that children perceive green marketing as
offering something “safe” to the environment and ecosystem, teenagers view green purchase and consumption practices as “something cool”, whereas adults are skeptical towards green marketing efforts. Implications and recommendations from research findings are also provided.
Keywords:Green marketing, children, teenagers, adults, exploratory, consumer behaviour

9.Trust in Strategic Alliances: What Does It Mean and How Is It Built?
Jane L. Menzies, Deakin Graduate School of Business
Deakin University

Informed by social exchange theory (SET) this study examines the role of trust in strategic alliances. Interviews were conducted with 17 participants who were strategic alliance managers in their organization. The study finds that trust is important to strategic alliance managers, and without it alliance managers would find it difficult to keep their alliance going.Trust is built over time, and based on the past experiences that the alliance manager has with their partner. The study found that prior networks, timely and appropriate communication and information exchange, fairness preservation and inter-firm adaptation were important in developing trust in the strategic alliance.

10.Sustaining Competitive Advantage through Stakeholder Management
Minyu Wu, PhD,Curtin University, Sarawak Campus, Malaysia

This study examines how competitive advantage can be sustained through stakeholder management. Considering a firm as a value-based network, which is a collection of resources,capabilities and relationships stakeholder management contributes to not only the source of competitive advantage but also its durability. The empirical results of this study have shown that stakeholder management generates several isolating mechanisms that preserve competitive advantages, including time compression diseconomies, causal ambiguity, social complexity, and transaction costs. It was also concluded that the four isolating mechanisms intertwine with each other and one can reinforce another.
Keywords:stakeholder theory and analysis, corporate social responsibility, competitive advantage,business level strategy

11.A Financial Crisis Buffer: The Case of Islamic Banking
Abdelaziz Chazi, Musa Darayseh,
American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Islamic finance, which is based on religious and ethical premises that seek more social justice and equality in the marketplace, is one of the fastest growing segments of the finance industry. The proponents of the Islamic banking system propose that this newly rediscovered way of banking is inherently stronger, more efficient than conventional banking, and is shock resistant. The recent financial crisis, which Islamic and conventional banks had to confront, offers a unique opportunity to test these assertions. We find that Islamic banks have been growing faster than their conventional counterparts prior to the financial crisis. We also provide evidence that this growth is sustainable given Islamic banks’ internally generated funds even in times of economic downturns. Additionally, we find that Islamic banks outperform their conventional counterparts both before and during the crisis.

12.Earnings Quality and Stress Levels of Chinese Listed Companies
Feng Li, School of Accounting and Finance, University of Wollongong, Australia
Indra Abeysekera∗, School of Accounting and Finance, University of Wollongong, Australia
Shiguang Ma, School of Accounting and Finance, University of Wollongong, Australia

This paper investigates the relation between earnings quality and stress levels of Chinese companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges from 2003 to 2007 by classifying them as financially stressed and bankrupt (SB), financially stressed and not bankrupt (SNB), and not financially stressed and not bankrupt (NSNB) firms. We measure the earnings quality by four separate attributes: accruals quality, earnings persistence, earnings predictability, and earnings smoothness. We find that earnings quality levels are parallel to firm’s stress levels: the SB firms have the lowest earnings quality measured by each of the four earnings attributes, the SNB firms have a lower earnings quality compared with the SB firms, the NSNB firms have the highest earnings quality. We also find that the earnings quality deteriorated over the study period, the number of SB firms with the lowest earnings quality increased, and the number of NSNB firms with the highest earnings quality decreased for the fiscal years 2003 to 2007.

13.Firm Level Determinants to“Small and Medium-Sized
Enterprises”Access to Financing in Indonesia
Rita R. Pidani(Corresponding author)
Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law
The University of Newcastle, Australia
Ishak Balaka
Faculty of Economics
Haluoleo University, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia

This paper empirically investigates the extent to which firm-level characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) impact on the probability of their accessing external finance in Indonesia. A conceptual framework linking firm-level characteristics and access to external finance is developed and tested for statistical magnitude by utilising binomiallogit regression. Results suggest significant differences exist between SMEs with and without access to finance in relation to their organisational size and legal status. The findings indicate that organisational size and legal status have significant effects on the probability of SMEs accessing external finance. The implication of the findings is that Indonesian public and private agencies should pursue policies aimed at alleviating dissemination bottlenecks by improving SMEs’ financial and institutional capabilities, and building strong networks to promote awareness of banking products and requirements.

14.Hybrid Minimum Entropy Method and Rough Set Theory on
Corporate Financial Crisis Prediction
Hia Jong Teoh,Hsing-Hui Chu*
Ling Tung University

This paper proposes a novel model which hybrid modify minimize entropy principle approach and rough set theory approach to predict corporate financial crisis. The aim of this paper is to explore the prediction model performance among financial ratios, corporate governance and the combined of financial ratios and corporate governance, to compare the prediction performance and to disclose the meaningful rules. In conclusion, this paper disclosed the relevant subsets of prediction characteristics and represented all important relationships between the image of a firm and its risk of failure. The model analyses the hidden relationship in the input data and recommends effectiveness prediction rules to managers, investors, creditors and financial institutions in the natural language of rules derived from their experience.
Keyword:modify minimize entropy principle approach, rough set theory, financial ratios, corporate governance, financial crisis

15.ChineseSuperstition and Foreign Currency Returns
Richard Chung*, and Bin Li
Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Australia

We examine the potential effect of Chinese superstition on returns in eight major currencies. We focus on market responses to days that are superstitiously deemed by the Chinese to be either lucky or
unlucky. After controlling for the weekend and calendar month anomalies, our results suggest that lucky day 8 in the month is associated with significant lower currency returns for four currencies
(Canadian dollars, Euros, Swiss Francs, and British Pounds). In contrast, lucky day 18 is associated with significant higher currency returns for Australian dollars, and unlucky day 24 is associated with
significant higher returns for Euros. The results support the argument that Chinese manufacturers convert the foreign currency receipt into US dollars on day 8, and that Chinese companies buy Australian dollars on day 18, possibly to pay for importing natural resources. Our evidence is also consistent with the argument that the Chinese Government buys Euros in unlucky day 24 for investment in European Government debt securities.
KeyWords:Superstition, Foreign Currency Markets

16.Winning Gold: Capital Resource Investments
Jerome J. DeRidder, Professor,George F. Summers, Associate Professor
Franklin P. Perdue School of Business
Salisbury University, USA

An Investment in long term assets is considered a capital investment. Companies are in business to earn a profit. An important question business owners must answer is where to invest their funds to achieve a desired level of profit. The answer to this question is that companies should examine all potential investments to determine which investment is most likely to result in a desired profit.

17.Perceived Benefit of TheMandatory Audit of Small Business in
Malaysia: Owners’ Perspectives
Hashanah Ismail and Loh Lee Boon
Faculty of Economics and Management
Universiti Putra Malaysia

This paper reports on a survey of owners of small businesses in Malaysia on the perceived benefit of the statutory audit. The study finds that 44% of the sample companies would not continue to have their accounts audited if not legally required to do so. However, the sample companies generally agreed that audit is beneficial by providing a check on internal control or accounting records. The location, age, ownership structure, education level and relationship with accounting cost were the factors found to significantly affect the owners’ perception of the need of annual audit requirement of small companies.

18.A Study on the Development of Cloud Database for the Aged The Accounting Theory Defenses of The Last in First in Inventory
Peter Harris, New York Institute of Technology, USA

The Last in First out Method (LIFO) is presently under severe scrutiny from the financial community which may soon culminate in its repeal as an acceptable accounting method. There are pressures from the SEC in conjunction with the International Financial Accounting Standards Board(IFRS) to standardize accounting standards worldwide. In addition, there is political pressure imposed by the US administration to raise additional revenues. Both groups strongly oppose LIFO, raising a strong possibility that’s its complete elimination. However, new developments such as the issuance of
the SEC report in July 2012 have resurrected hope for LIFO. This paper will address the reasons defending LIFO as an acceptable accounting method strictly from a financial reporting perspective.

19.Social Networking and e-CRM:‘Revolution’ or ‘e-business as usual’?
Ms Larissa Jekimovics, Dr MarkWickham
University of Tasmania, Australia
Dr Frank Danzinger
Fraunhofer IIS - Center for Applied Research on Supply Chain Services

The line between ‘social networking’ and ‘professional networking’ has blurred considerably,as large firms begin to take advantage of relatively easy access to an international network of customers via social networking sites (SNSs). The evolution of SNSs (such as Facebook) has resulted in a new channel for marketing communications, and recent advances have led to the development of ‘customer-relationship oriented SNSs’ by the world’s largest firms. Despite the time, money, and technologies many large firms have dedicated to electronic customer-relationship management (e-CRM)via SNSs, however, results have often been below expectations. Undertaking a longitudinal content analysis of nine of Australia’s largest firm’s Facebook pages, this paper seeks to gauge the extent to which the espoused ‘SNS advantages’ are utilised by large firms, and the extent to which these advantages provide valid bases for effective e-CRM. This study revealed that
only two of the six potential SNS advantages (i.e. ‘interaction’ and ‘transparency’) were effectively utilised by the sample of firms over the study period.In order to increase the effectiveness of SNSs for
building and maintain effective e-CRM by large firms, this paper recommends three main strategies:Enabling trialogue, designing tailored e-CRM strategies for SNSs, and creating enthusiasm in user


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ISSN: 1813-0534