ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 10 No 1 April edition 2014


Volume 10*Number 1* APRIL 2014

ISSN 1813-0534


Understanding The Sources of National Competitiveness And Innovation of Gulf-Based Emerging Markets: The Case of The United Arab Emirates

Martin Spraggon* and Virginia Bodolica*

ESE Business School, Universidad de los Andes, Chile & American University of Sharjah, School of Business and Management, United Arab Emirates


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a fascinating country located on the Arabian shore of the Persian Gulf that has experienced a vertiginous economic growth over the past years. Considering that the country has attained noteworthy regional and international standings in only a few decades, the purpose of this article is to uncover and discuss the specific sources of national competitiveness and innovation of the UAE. This analysis is both relevant and timely for understanding how this

constantly evolving economy has achieved its current level of development and for delineating future strategic priorities for allowing a successful implementation of its long-term vision. The UAE has become an important player on the world map and is determined to take advantage of its central geographical location to transform itself into a hub for global aerospace, logistics, finance and trade.To illustrate the pillars on which the country relies to secure its competitive advantage and engage in

innovative undertakings, we focus on analyzing and benchmarking the UAE’s rankings from the latest Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) and Global Innovation Index (GII). Our article seeks to not only introduce the reader to the recent national accomplishments but also open opportunities for a constructive debate on how the UAE can continue its journey of sustainable growth and development.

*Acknowledgement: The initial stages of this research project were conducted while the authors were on a Visiting Research Fellowship at the Middle East Center of the London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom). The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the fellowship in making this research possible and thank Dr. Robert Lowe, the Manager of the Middle East Center at the London School of Economics, for his encouragement..



Surviving The Crisis: An Empirical Study of Capabilities And Competitive Advantages of Small And Medium-sized Enterprises

Vijaya Thyil, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia


How to entrepreneurial firms create and sustain competitive advantages despite widespread shocks such as the global financial and economic crisis? What are the proactive moves and pre-emptive strategies they use? Using the data from in-depth interviews with 50 entrepreneurs operating in the manufacturing and business services sectors in Australia, this paper aims to explore and analyze the creation and sustenance of competitive advantage. Data and discussion reveals similarities as well as differences among both sectors. The implications are useful for entrepreneurs,

policy makers and researchers.

Keywords:competitive advantage; capabilities; manufacturing; business services; global financial crisis;Small and medium-sized enterprises; Australia



Monitoring And Optimum Stimulation Level on Impulse Buying And Variety Seeking

C. A. Malarvizhi*, Katayoon Ershadi**, Abdullah Al Mamun***,

Sreenivasan Jeyashree**, Mohammad Nurul Huda Mozumder****

* Faculty of Management, Multimedia University, Malaysia

** Graduate School of Management, Multimedia University, Malaysia

*** Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia

****Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Laval University, Canada


The objective of this study was to examine how consumer impulsiveness, self-monitoring, and optimum stimulation level affect impulsive buying and variety seeking behavior among Malaysian consumers. This study employed a cross-sectional design and a total of 302 respondents were selected using a convenience sampling method. Findings of this study revealed that consumer impulsiveness and optimum stimulation level has a significant positive effect on impulsive buying and variety

seeking. This study therefore recommends organizations and retail stores to display their goods and products in suitable, accessible, and reachable places, while keeping in mind the products that are placed on the path of consumers trigger customers’ impulsive behaviors at a higher level. Building attractive showrooms and displays for products is another way in which to increase sales, due to the stimulation of customer’s impulse buying and variety seeking behaviors.

Keywords:Consumer Impulsiveness, Self-Monitoring, Optimum Stimulation Level, Impulsive Buying,Variety Seeking Behavior, Malaysian Consumers



An Exploration of The Factors Influencing Social CRM Adoption:Evidence from Australian Firms

Kritcha Yawised, School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Australia

Nuttaneeya (Ann) Torugsa, Australian Innovation Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Australia


Businesses around the world are placing increasing emphasis on effectively improving relationships with customers by using social media. This idea is called social customer relationship management (Social CRM) – an emerging concept that includes strategies, processes and technologies to link social media with traditional CRM processes. Despite growing attention being paid to this concept, there is very limited empirical evidence on what determines the adoption of Social CRM by

private firms. Using a large-scale sample of 1,025 Australian firms, we explore several factors (firm size, industry sector, type of market served, and the perception of barriers) that may affect Social CRM adoption. We find that the uptake of Social CRM increases with firm size, and service firms are more likely than manufacturing firms to adopt Social CRM. Firms that sell to individual customers tend to adopt Social CRM more than those that sell to other companies or other divisions of their firm. Three types of barriers negatively associated with Social CRM adoption include costs outweighing benefits, rigid organisational culture and lack of management support, whilst a positive association observed for the barriers related to high financial cost and employee misuse of social media tools.

Keywords: Social CRM, social media, social networking, size, sector, market, barriers.



Does Information Technology Exist to Server Business Objectives Only? The Significant Role of Modern IT in Reshaping Business Strategy

Ahmed Elmorshidy, Ph.D.

Claremont Graduate University, USA / Gulf University for Science & Technology, Kuwait


The traditional view of Information Technology (IT) was that it is a tool to achieve business strategies and objectives. Most research in this regard focused on aligning IT with business strategies.Today, with the impressive advancements of modern IT infrastructure, communications, and connectivity and the role of the Internet and enterprise-wide applications, Information Technology is starting to reshape and affect business strategies in many organizations moving towards an integrated and mutual picture of IT/business effect and changing the way of framing IT as only a functional-level strategy. This paper investigate the role of modern IT in reshaping business strategies, reviews literature about the key dimensions of digital business strategy. The paper also introduces a new research model by extending the Technology Acceptance Model of Davis (1989) with the incorporation of the effect of the key dimensions of digital business strategy.



Conservation And Economic Generation of Indigenous Community in Integrated Tropical Fruits Reforestation

Mohd Amin Ahmad

Shafiee Md Tarmudi

Muhamad Ismail Pahmi

University Technology of MARA Malaysia


The purpose of this study is attempted to look into conservation and economic generation of integrated tropical fruits reforestation in Malaysia particularly secondary forest granted to the indigenous community which left idle or partially cultivated with self subsistence crops towards fulfillment of at least some of the national economic agendas namely income generation and livelihood of Malaysian

indigenous communities and national economy. The introduction and implementation of a designated cost effective methodology or approach of manageable Integrated Tropical Fruits Reforestation Technique and program on the idle or partial attended indigenous customary land will resulted in reaping in profits in upgrading income and livelihood of indigenous people. This not only will reap in the high returns of quality tropical exotic fruits like durian, langsat, cempedak, tampoi, petai, etc, creating orchards within the jungle vicinity as well as tourism. At the same time conservation effort in economically reforestation of the tropical fruits saplings into its natural habitats will reduce the climatic change, environmental conservation as well as create jobs for the local indigenous people. The participative efforts from JHEOA, state government and indigenous community chieftains are crucial and certainly will have great impact in determining the level of achievement in upgrading indigenous

community income and livelihood as well as generate country’s economy through the expansion of total reforested tropical fruits trees within the jungle land areas, retain and sustain the last frontier of Malaysian treasured environment. Technicality and expertise in the implementation process are two important factors. Knowledge on forest management and tropical fruits agriculture are also taken into consideration in this study. In general, there is a significant difference among factors stated above on

reforestation of indigenous community’s idle land with tropical fruits trees. The initiatives and eagerness to be successful in this concept depend on the inter-relatedness of the various quarters in the initiatives that will constitute to the income generation and livelihood of indigenous community. The vast secondary jungle land allocated to the indigenous community in Malaysia has much potentiality in consolidation into integrated tropical fruits reforestation not only for the purpose of conservation of Malaysian jungle frontier but also able to upgrade income and livelihood of the indigenous community within the third wave of national economy through agriculture. It was of utmost important for developing the under develop indigenous community and conserve the natural habitat and heritage of

the remaining limited Malaysian jungle frontiers into a profitable economic venture.

Keywords: Conservation, Indigenous community, Tropical fruits reforestation, Economic Generation



Rough Set Theory on Corporate Financial Crisis Prediction

Hia Jong Teoh, Hsing-Hui Chu*

Ling Tung University, Taiwan


This paper proposes rough set theory approach to predict corporate financial crisis. The aim of this paper is to verify the relationship between the failure-signs of small and medium enterprises and the unlisted company. In conclusion, this paper disclosed the relevant subsets of prediction characteristics and represented the important relationships between crisis warnings for small and medium enterprises and the failure of public traded company. The rough set theory analyses the hidden relationship in the signs of failure we input in and recommends effectiveness prediction rules to corporate management, investors, creditors, financial institutions and even the government.

Keyword: rough set theory, financial ratios, financial crisis, hidden relationship, prediction rules



Comparison between Stock Synchronicity Measures –

An Empirical Analysis

Sarod Khandaker

Centre for Enterprise Performance, Faculty of Business and Enterprise,

Swinburne University of Technology,Australia


In this paper, I analyse three measures of stock market synchronicity; the classical measure, the R square measure and the zero return measure proposed by Morck et al. (2000), Skaife et al. (2006) and Khandaker (2012). It is found that the classical measure and the R square measure exhibit somewhat similar aspects of stock market synchronous behaviour while the zero return measure provides a different finding. Further, cross-sectional analysis shows that inflation is generally positively

correlated with the classical measure and the R-square measure, while it is negatively correlated with the zero return measure; and government accountability and trade openness is negatively correlated with the classical measure and the R-square measure whereas it is positively correlated with the zero return measure. Analysis of the correction coefficient shows that the classical measure is positively correlated with the R square measure while the zero return measure is negatively correlated with both

these measures. The paper concludes that the classical measure and the R square measure of stock synchronicity are closely correlated while the zero return measure captures an aspect of stock market behaviour other than stock synchronicity.

JEL classification: G12, G14

Keywords:Synchronicity, Cross-Sectional Analysis, Classical Synchronicity Measure, R square

Measure, Zero Return Measure



High Dividend Rates Can Not Contribute to Long Investment Horizons:The Chinese Evidence

Hai Long

Zhaoyong Zhang

School of Business, Edith Cowan University,Australia


This paper, based on Campbell (2000), introduces investor sentiment-related variables to a logarithm model, aiming to examine the relationship between dividend rate and investment horizons in the emerging Growth Enterprise Market of China. Using data sample of 243 IPO firms during 2009-2012, the study find that these firms’ dividend policies do not contribute to investment horizons in the listing market, and both dividend rates and investment horizons vary across industry sectors. In addition, a majority of these firms failed to fulfill their dividend policies.

Keywords: Dividend Policies, Growth Enterprise Market of China, Investment Horizons



Bankruptcy Prediction of Indian Listed Companies Using Discriminant Analysis, Logistic Regression And Neural Network

Varadraj Bapat and Abhay Nagale, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India


The purpose of this study is to develop reliable bankruptcy prediction models for Indian listed companies. Multivariate discriminant analysis, logistic regression and Neural Networks are employed to a dataset of 90 matched pairs of bankrupt and non-bankrupt Indian listed companies. The results indicate that the models yield an overall correct classification accuracy of 80 to 85% one year prior to bankruptcy. Neural Network has higher classification accuracy compared to discriminant analysis and logistic regression.



The Compliance Cost of Anti-Money Laundering Legislation under Malaysia’s Dual Financial System: A Survey of Bank Compliance Officers

Prof Wee Ching Pok

Accounting Research Institute,Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia

Prof Normah Hj Omar

Director, Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia

Prof Milind Sathye( Corresponding author)

University of Canberra, University Drive, Bruce, Australia


We develop our understanding of the regulatory cost burden on banks due to the Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Terrorism Financing Act 2001 (AMLATFA), by surveying 82 compliance officers in Malaysia. The study assumes importance given the dual financial system (conventional and Islamic) enshrined in the Malaysian Central Bank Act 2009. The compliance officers envisage significant increase in cost in the next three years. The proportion of bank compliance officers expecting costs to rise between 21 to 50 per cent was 43 for conventional banks and 67 per cent for

Islamic banks. The study contributes to the enforcement theory of regulation with evidence from Malaysia and would help inform policy about risk-based regulation.

Key words: Compliance cost, Malaysia, AML/CFT, dual financial system, Islamic banks

JEL: G21, G38, K42



On The Relation between Internal Corporate Governance And Bank Risk-taking: Evidence from Gulf Cooperative Council Countries

Houda Arouri, Qatar University ,Qatar

Mohammad Badrul Muttakin, Deakin University, Australia

Mohammed Hossain, Griffith University, Australia

Omar Al Farooque, University of New England, Australia

*Corresponding author: Mohammed Hossain, email:


This study investigates the relationship between ownership structure, board composition and risk-taking of listed banking companies in the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries during 2004–2010. Building on limited literature and using OLS and Fixed-effect models, we document that both ownership structure and board composition are important determinants of bank risk-taking behaviour, in particular foreign ownership and larger board size in bringing financial stability and less

risk while government ownership and CEO duality having detrimental effect on bank risk-taking, and no particular effect of institutional ownership. These findings have important policy implications for the banking industry in GCC countries with distinct economic, financial and cultural background, and nature of banking system in shaping corporate governance system to restrict the unrestrained risktaking behavior of banking firms to avoid financial turmoil in the Gulf region.



National Culture as An Influence on Perceptions of Employer Attractiveness

Mr Sultan Alshathry University of Adelaide. Dr Wayne O’Donohue, Griffith University.

Dr Mark Wickham & Dr Simon Fishwick, University of Tasmania


In competitive market for skilled employees, it has become increasingly important for

organizations to implement strategies that establish and maintain a brand as an ‘employer of choice’. This study aims to investigate how national cultural context influences perceptions of potential employees about employer attractiveness. The study findings demonstrate how the Saudi national cultural context influences the perceptions of potential Saudi employees, and contributes to the literature

in two ways: firstly, by demonstrating the need to extend the employer attractiveness framework developed by Berthon, Ewing and Hah (2005) to include dimensions relevant to national cultural context; and secondly, by highlighting the need to give consideration when measuring employer attractiveness to the relative level of importance of each aspect of employer attractiveness in the light of any specific national cultural context.



Perceived Organizational Justice And A Wildcat Strike :

A Study Conducted in China

Lei Wang*, Ph.D., The University of Texas – Pan American, USA

Leonel Prieto, Ph.D.,Texas A&M International University,Laredo, TX ,USA

Grace K. Dagher, Ph.D., Lebanese American University, Beirut, Chouran, Beirut


China has witnessed an increased number of labor strikes in recent years. This paper is aimed to explain such phenomenon from the perspective of organizational justice. The predicted relationship between labor strikes and organizational justice was examined with a field study conducted in a company in China, where a strike was ended approximately six months before the study took place. The case study results demonstrated the presence of three types of organizational injustice among the

workers–distributive injustice, procedural injustice, and interactional injustice. Recommendations were provided on management practices for preventing labor strikes.



Leadership Characteristics, LMX Currencies, Perceived Supervision, And Subordinate Behavior in Taiwan

Ismatilla Mardanov, Southeast Missouri State University,USA

Kuan-Ju Chen, Washington State University,USA


Relying on the prominent leadership theories, we examine the extent to which leadership characteristics -- traits, roles, and styles -- can influence LMX currencies and the reciprocal effect of LMX on leadership characteristics. We also test the impact of leadership and LMX on perceived supervision that forms subordinate behavior. Results indicate that leadership characteristics play an important role in shaping LMX currencies that managers must know for leadership effectiveness. LMX

currencies have a stronger reciprocal effect on leadership. Leadership and LMX have significant effect on subordinate perceptions of supervision, and the latter has a strong impact on subordinate feelings and behavior measured by such variables as satisfaction with supervision, inspiration, and decision to stay. The main finding is that the dynamics of leadership characteristics change the nature of leader-member

exchange, member perceptions of supervision, and subordinate behavior.



Key Managerial And Organizational Issues of Corporate Entrepreneurship

So-Ling Chau, Hang Seng Management College, Hong Kong


Entrepreneurship can be regarded as the key to business success nowadays. Yet, for a

well-established organization, entrepreneurship still has a role to play and it is not the sole domain of new ventures. This paper explains the basics of the concept of corporate entrepreneurship and identifies its key dimensions. Strategic value and importance of corporate entrepreneurship are then highlighted. Antecedents of corporate entrepreneurship are also covered which could shed lights to managers on how to promote corporate entrepreneurial activities and overcome the barriers in organizations. Finally, a conclusion is drawn



In Search of The Equilibrium for ERP Project Success:

Dynamic Management of Intangible Resources

Mudiarasan Kuppusamy, Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation, Malaysia

Ali Salman Saleh, Notre Dame University, Lebanon.

Yi-Chen Lan, University of Western Sydney, Australia


Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is well-known as one of the central technological infrastructure that facilitates efficient business operations in a dynamic business landscape. Adoption of the systems however is mired with numerous problems; a well cited reality in multitude industrial and academic reports. This paper applies the dynamic capabilities view to examine the effects of intangible resources (i.e. Governance, Knowledge and Relationship) toward successful implementation of ERP systems in Malaysian service firms. Results from the Partial Least Square

(PLS) estimation shows that Relationship resource has a significant individual and direct effect toward ERP implementation success. Further analysis shows that Governance resource is the mediator that enhances the effects of Knowledge and Relationship resources toward successful implementation of ERP systems. The findings suggests that successful ERP implementation could be prominent if the

implementing firm is able to manage their technology project by integrating and reconfiguring their intangible resources in a strategic context. The strategic determination of resources with the capability to enhance the competence of other resources can become the strategic equilibrium for ERP project implementation success.

Keywords:Dynamic capabilities, Enterprise Resource Planning, Intangible Resources, Partial Least




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ISSN: 1813-0534